Indonesian citizen. Appointed as President Commissioner since 1994 and as Vice President Commissioner (Independent) since 2010. Served as a member of legislative assembly between 1967 to 1978, appointed as Junior Minister for Public Housing and State Minister for Public Housing from 1978 to 1988, and as Minister of Labour from 1988 to 1993. He also served as President of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1991. He received his Doctoral degree from the University of Indonesia in 2002. In addition, he is the Chairman of the Education and Development Management Foundation since 1994, and guest lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Political Studies at the University of Indonesia since 2002.